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Addendum To The Study In The Torah:
The Instruction Of God

So you thought that was quite in depth, huh? Wait! This is about half way through the whole discussion!

THE KINGS OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE

539 BCE - 331 BCE
Chronology

Cyrus II (the Great) son of Cambyses I)
550 BCE - 529 BCE
559 BCE - 529 BCE
559 BCE - 530 BCE

* Conquered Babylon in 539 BCE; 540-39 BCE; 539-38 BCE
* Reign of "contentment"
* Authorized the Jews to return to Yisrael with Zerubbabel to rebuild the Temple [2 Chr. 36:22, Ezra :2,3], 537 BCE; 538 BCE
* Founder of the vast Persian Empire under which Judea remained a province for 200 years
* Established his capital at Pasargadae in Paras/Persia
* Died in battle
 
Darius the Mede (son of Ahashverosh (Dan. 9:11)

AKA: Gobryas, Gubaru the Governor of Babylon, or Belshazzar of the Book of Daniel (??) (Darius the Mede's biblical dating parallels Elshazzar's reign [cf. Dan. 9:1, 11:1 & Dan, 7:l, 8:1])
A ruler/governor (2nd in command) over Babylon during Cyrus' reign;a Persian King not  a Persian King

There is no historical record of a king of the Medes name "Darius"
 

62 years old at time of being "made king over the realm of the Chaldeans"
[Dan.5:28-6:2; 9:11]

. Ruled 8 months until his death

 

Cambyses II (Cyrus 11 [the Great's] son)

529 BCE - 522/1 BCE (a reign of 5 years and 7 months)

529 BCE - 522 BCE

538 BCE - 522 BCE

AKA: Artaxerxes, Xerxes in Greek, Ahashverosh in Hebrew, Khshgyarsha in Persian

Co-regent with Cyrus as king over Babylon 538 BCE & 530 BCE

Halted the building of the Temple for 17 years [Ezra 4:24]

Added Phoenicia, Cyprus, Egypt to the empire

Secretly murdered his brother Smerdis (theory considered doubtful Cf.)

Reign of "discontent and misrule."

* Committed suicide upon (impostor) Smerdis' usurping the throne

 

Smerdis (actually an impostor, Gaumata, claiming to be Smerdis, the deceased younger son of Cyrus who died [was murdered by his brother ??] shortly after Cyrus died

521 BCE

522 BCE

* Reigned for 8 months

* Halted the building of the Temple for l7 years [Ezra 4:24]

* Murdered by Darius I

 

Darius I (son of Hystaspes) Darius the Great (the Ahashverosh of Ester? see underscored territorial reign below)

521 BCE - 486 BCE

522 BCE - 486 BCE

 

Dethroned/murdered Smerdis (after 8 months of Smerdis' reigning)

Made interference with the rebuilding of the Temple a capital offense [Ezra 6:12], 52O BCE.

. The Temple at Jerusalem was finished and dedicated in the 6th year of Darius, 516 BCE; in the 2nd year of Darius [Cf. Hag.1:15] (???)

Took 6 years (by 515 BCE) to establish Persia/himself as authority in all lands subdued by Cyrus and Cambyses

Moved the Persian capital from Pasargadae to Persepolis (25 miles west of Pasargadae)

. Built the palace at Shushan

Darius (abolished the local kingdoms and principalities and) divided the empire into "satrapies." Each satrap, a "protector of the realm," being a Persian official with supreme authority in civil affairs, and a division of the imperial army to support him and maintain the government against all outside attacks. Judges were appointed with fixed circuits, and a system of posts was established with royal roads extending everywhere for the transmission of dispatches and rescripts to and from the capital cities of Susa/Shushan or Persepolis. (The returning exiles to Yisrael expected to found an autonomous princedom, but under Darius there was erected the Persian province of Judah with imperial supervision over matters civil and religious.)

Conquered northwest India in 512 BCE

* Subdued the coast land between Bosporus and Grecian state of Thessaly in 508 BCE (including Thrace, Macedonia and Scythia) thereby controlling navigation of the lower Indus and opened trade of India by way of Persian Gulf. Thus the Persian dominion now extended from the Caucasus to the borders of northern Greece and "from India even unto Ethiopia." [Ester 1:1] His territory was nearly 3,000 miles long and 500-1500 miles wide (2 million square miles).

* Why Darius I could not be Abashverosh of Ester:

Darius made interference with building the Temple a capital offense in his 2nd year; therefore he would have committed suicide by authorizing Haman's annihilation proclamation of the Jews in his 3rd year. (The Temple was not completed until the 6th year of Darius I.)

Ahashverosh reigned from the Shushan Palace (which was built by Darius)

Question: Since the Temple was built at the time of the story in the Book of Ester, why was Mordekhay in the palace instead of on his way to Jerusalem for Passover. It took 4 months to get to Jerusalem from Babylon. Was that too far to travel?

Darius Hystaspes (see Darius 1, son of Hystaspgs, above)

Herxes I (son of Darius 1, son of Hystaspes)

485 BCE - 465 BCE

486 BCE - 465 BCE

486 BCE - 465 BCE

AKA: Xerxes in Greek, Ahashverosh in Hebrew; Khshayarsha in Persian

. Succeeded Darius to the throne upon Darius' death in 486 BCE.

Xerxes mother was a daughter of Cyrus the Great.

Xerxes is the Ahashverosh of the Book of Ester

Xerxes arranged the Grecian war in the 3rd year of his reign.

. He returned defeated from the Grecian war in the 7th year of his reign, 480 BCE

Ester becomes queen in the 7th year of his reign, 478 BCE

History records his wife as Amestris.

An historical inscription of Xerxes discovered at Persepolis lists the numerous subject nations over which he ruled and corroborates Ester 1:1.

Assassinated

Artaxerxes I Lonfimanus (son of Xerxes I)

464 BCE - 424 BCE

465 BCE - 425 BCE

465 BCE - 423 BCE

. Commissioned Ezra to return to Jerusalem 457 BCE [Ezra 7:1]

Ezra journeyed to Jerusalem in Artaxerxes' 7th year, 458 BCE if Artaxerxes I is meant; 398 BCE, if Artaxerxes 11 is meant [Ezra 10:6]

Nehemiah was his cupbearer.

. Granted permission to Nehemiah to assume control of civil affairs at . Jerusalem making him governor 445 BCE; 444 BCE [Neh. 2:1-8]

. Nehemiah returned to Shushan after 12 years

. Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem again in 433-2 BCE

Father of Xerxes II and Darius 11

Darius II Ochus (son of Artaxerxes 1)

423 BCE - 404 BCE

424 BCE - 404 BCE

. Father of Artaxerxes II

The Darius in Nehemiah 12:22*

. In his l4th year, 410 BCE, the Elephantine temple was destroyed

* Could not be the Artaxerxes in Nehemiah because that Artaxerxes reigned for 32 years or more. The Artaxerxes in Nehemiah must be Artaxerxes I Longimanus.

Artaxerxes II Mnemonn (son of Darius II)

404 BCE - 359 BCE

404-358 BCE

. Rebuilt the royal palace at Susa/Shushan

. The monarch of Ezra's mission in his 7th year, 398-7 BCE

Artaxerxes III Ochus (son of Artaxerxes II)

359 BCE - 338 BCE

358 BCE - 338 BCE

354 BCE - 338 BCE

Arses (son of Artaxerxes III)

338 BCE - 335 BCE

338 BCE - 336 BCE

* AKA: Xerxes III

Herxes III (see: Arses, above)

Darius III the Persian, Darius Cadomannus

336-330 BCE

335 BCE - 331 BCE

The last king of Persia

Empire destroyed by Alexander the Great, 333-331 BCE

Contemporary of Jaddua, the high priest [Neh. 12:22]

Great grandson of Darius II

. Murdered by his satrap

SCRIPTURE REFERENCES TO PERSIAN KINGS

(Underscored scripture references are listed on the Timeline of the Persian Kings.)

Ezra 4:5 And hired counsellors against them, to frustrate their purpose, all the days of Cyrus king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius king of Persia.

Ezra 4:24 Then ceased the work of the house of G-d which [is] at Jerusalem. So it ceased unto the second year of the reign of Darius king of Persia.

Ezra 5:5 But the eye of their G-d was upon the elders of the Jews, that they could not cause them to cease, till the matter came to Darius: and then they returned answer by letter concerning this [matter].

Ezra 5:6 The copy of the letter that Tatnai, governor on this side the river, and Shetharboznai, and his companions the Apharsachites, which [were] on this side the river, sent unto Darius the king:

Ezra 5:7 They sent a letter unto him, wherein was written thus; Unto Darius the king, all peace.

Ezra 5:8 Be it known unto the king, that we went into the province of Judea, to the house of the great G-d, which is builded with great stones, and timber is laid in the walls, and this work goeth fast on, and prospereth in their hands.

Ezra 6:1 Then Darius the king made a decree, and search was made in the house of the rolls, where the treasures were laid up in Babylon.

Ezra 6:12 And the G-d that hath caused his name to dwell there destroy all kings and people, that shall put to their hand to alter [and] to destroy this house of G-d which [is] at Jerusalem. I Darius have made a decree; let it be done with speed.

Ezra 6:13 Then Tatnai, governor on this side the river, Shetharboznai, and their companions, according to that which Darius the king had sent, so they did speedily.

Ezra 6:14 And the elders of the Jews builded, and they prospered through the prophesying of Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo. And they builded, and finished [it], according to the commandment of the G-d of Yisrael, and according to the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia.

Ezra 6:15 And this house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king.

Neh. 12:22 The Levites in the days of Eliashib, Joiada, and Johanan, and Jaddua, [were] recorded chief of the fathers: also the priests, to the reign of Darius the Persian.

Dan. 5:31 And Darius the Median took the kingdom, [being] about threescore and two years old.

Dan. 6:1 It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom an hundred and twenty princes, which should be over the whole kingdom;

Dan. 6:6 Then these presidents and princes assembled together to the king, and said thus unto him, King Darius, live for ever.

Dan.6:9 Wherefore king Darius signed the rating and the decree.

Dan. 6:25 Then king Darius wrote unto all people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; Peace be multiplied unto you.

Dan. 6:28 So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian.

Dan.9:1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahashverosh, of the seed of the

Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;

Dan. 11:1 Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, [even] I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.

Hag. 1:1 In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, in the first day of the month, came the word of the L-RD by Haggai the prophet unto Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, saying,

Hag 1:15 In the four and twentieth day of the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king.

Hag.2:10 In the four and twentieth [day] of the ninth [month], in the second year of Darius, came the word of the L-RD by Haggai the prophet, saying,

Zech. 1:1 In the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the L-RD unto Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet, saying,

Zech. 1:7 Upon the four and twentieth day of the eleventh month, which [is] the month Sebat, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the L-RD unto Zechairiah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet, saying,

2 Chr. 36:22 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the

L-RD [spoken] by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the L-RD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and [put it] also in rating, saying,

2Chr. 36:23 Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath the L-RD G-d of heaven given me; and he hath charged me to build him an house in Jerusalem, which [is] in Judah. Who [is there] among you of all his people? The L-RD his G-d [be] with him, and let him go up.

Ezra 1:1 Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the L-RD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the L-RD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and [put it] also in writing, saying,

Ezra 1:2 Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, The L-RD G-d of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged me to build him an house at Jerusalem, which [is] in Judah.

Ezra 1:7 Also Cyrus the king brought forth the vessels of the house of the L-RD, which Nebuchadnezzar had brought forth out of Jerusalem, and had put them in the house of his gods,

Ezra 1;8 Even those did Cyrus king of Persia bring forth by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, and numbered them unto Sheshbazzar, the prince of Judah.

Ezra 3:7 They gave money also unto the masons, and to the carpenters; and meat, and drink, and oil, unto them of Zidon, and to them of Tyre, to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea of Joppa, according to the grant that they had of Cyrus king of Persia.

Ezra 4:3 But Zerubbabel, and Jeshua, and the rest of the chief of the fathers of Yisrael, said unto them, Ye have nothing to do with us to build an house unto our G-d; but we ourselves together will build unto the L-RD G-d of Yisrael, as king Cyrus the king of Persia hath commanded us.

Ezra 4:5 And hired counsellors against them, to frustrate their purpose, all the days of Cyrus king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius king of Persia.

Ezra 5:13 But in the first year of Cyrus the king of Babylon [the same] king Cyrus made a decree to build this house of G-d.

Ezra 5:14 And the vessels also of gold and silver of the house of G-d, which Nebuchadnezzar took out of the temple that [was] in Jerusalem, and brought them into the temple of Babylon, those did Cyrus the king take out of the temple of Babylon, and they were delivered unto [one], whose name [was] Sheshbazzar, whom he bad made governor;

Ezra 5:17 Now therefore, if [it seem] good to the king, let there be search made in the king's treasure house, which [is] there at Babylon, whether it be [so], that a decree was made of Cyrus the king to build this house of G-d at Jerusalem, and let the king send his pleasure to us concerning this matter.

Exra 6:3 In the first year of Cyrus the king [the same] Cyrus the king made a decree [Concerning] the house of G-d at Jerusalem, Let the house be builded, the place where they offered sacrifices, and let the foundations thereof be strongly laid; the height thereof threescore cubits, [and] the breadth thereof threescore cubits;

Ezra 6:14 And the elders of the Jews builded, and they prospered through the prophesying of Haggai the prophet and Zechairiah the son of Iddo. And they builded, and finished [it], according to the commandment of the G-d of Yisrael, and according to the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia.

Is.44:28 That saith of Cyrus, [He is] my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure: even saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid.

Isa 45:1 Thus saith the L-RD to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose eight band I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut;

Dan. 1:21 And Daniel continued [even] unto the first year of king Cyrus.

Dan. 6:28 So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian.

Dan. 10:1 In the third year of C y r u s king of Persia a thing was revealed unto Daniel, whose name was called Belteshazzar, and the thing [was] true, but the time appointed [was] long: and he understood the thing, and had understanding of the vision.

Ezra 4:7 And in the days of Artaxerxes wrote Bishlam, Mithredath, Tabeel, and the rest of their companions, unto Artaxerxes king of Persia; and the writing of the letter [was] written in the Syrian tongue, and interpreted in the Syrian tongue.

Ezra 4:8 Rehum the chancellor and Shimshai the scribe wrote a letter against Jerusalem to Artaxerxes the king in this sort.

Ezra 4:11 This [is] the copy of the letter that they sent unto him, [even] unto Artaxerxes the king; Thy servants the men on this side the river, and at such a time.

Ezra 4:23 Now when the copy of king Artaxerxes' [was] read before Rehum, and Shimshai the scribe, and their companions, they went up in haste to Jerusalem unto the Jews, and made them to cease by force and power.

Ezra 6:14 And the elders of the Jews builded, and they prospered through the prophesying of Haggai the prophet and Zechairiah the son of Iddo. And they builded, and finished [it], according to the commandment of the G-d of Yisrael,, and according to the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia.

Ezra 7:1 Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, Ezra the son of Seraiah, the son of Azariah, the son of Hilkiah,

Ezra 7:7 And there went up [some] of the children of Yisrael, and of the priests, and the Levites, and the singers, and the porters, and the Nethinims, unto Jerusalem, in the seventh year of Artaxerxes the king.

Ezra 7:11 Now this [is] the copy of the letter that the king Artaxerxes gave unto Ezra the priest, the scribe, [even] a scribe of the words of the commandments of the L-RD, and of his statutes to Yisrael.

Ezra 7.-12 Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the G-d of heaven, perfect [peace], and at such a time.

Ezrah. 7:21 And I, [even] I Artaxerxes the king, do make a decree to all the treasurers which [are] beyond the river, that whatsoever Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the G-d of heaven, shall require of you, it be done speedily,

Ezra 8:1 These [are] now the chief of their fathers, and [this is] the genealogy of them that went up with me from Babylon, in the reign of Artaxerxes the king.

Neh. 2:1 And it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king, [that] wine [was] before him: and I took up the wine, and gave [it] unto the king. Now I had not been [before time] sad in his presence.

Neh. 5:14 Moreover from the time that I was appointed to be their governor in the land of Judah, from the twentieth year even unto the two and thirtieth year of Artaxerxes the king, [that is], twelve years, I and my brethren have not eaten the bread of the governor.

Neh.13:6 But in all this [time] was not I at Jerusalem: for in the two and thirtieth year of Artaxerxes king of Babylon came I unto the king, and after certain days obtained I leave of the king.

Esth. 1:1 Now it came to pass in the days of Ahashuerosh, (this [is] Ahashuerosh which reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, [over] an hundred and seven and twenty provinces.)

Esth. 1.2 [That] in those days, when the king Ahashuerosh sat on the throne of his kingdom, which [was] in Shushan the palace,

Es 1:9 Also Vashti the queen made a feast for the women [in] the royal house which [belonged] to king Ahashuerosh.

Esth. 1:10 On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven chamberlains that served in the presence of Ahashuerosh the king,

Esth. 1:15 What shall we do unto the queen Vashti according to law, because she hath not performed the commandment of the king Ahashuerosh by the chamberlains?

Esth. 1:16 And Memucan answered before the king and the princes, Vashti the queen hath not done wrong to the king only, but also to all the princes, and to all the people that [are] in all the provinces of the king Ahashuerosh.

Esth. 1:1 For [this] deed of the queen shall come abroad unto all women, so that they shall despise their husbands in their eyes, when it shall be reported, The king Ahashuerosh commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, but she came not.

Esth. 1:19 If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes, that it be not altered, That Vashti come no more before king Ahashuerosh, and let the king give her royal estate unto another that is better than she.

Esth. 2:1 After these things, when the wrath of king Ahashuerosh was appeased, he remembered Vashti, and what she had done, and what was decreed against her.

Esth. 2:12 Now when every maid's turn was come to go in to king Ahashuerosh, after that she had been twelve months, according to the manner of the women, (for so were the days of their purifications accomplished, [to wit], six months with oil of myrrh, and six months with sweet odors, and with [other] things for the purifying of the women;)

Esth. 2:16 So Ester was taken unto king Ahashuerosh into his house royal in the tenth month, which [is] the month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign.

Esth. 2:21 In those days, while Mordekhay sat in the king's gate, two of the king's chamberlains, Bigthan and Teresh, of those which kept the door, were wroth, and sought to lay hand on the king Ahashuerosh.

Esth. 3:1 After these things did king Ahashuerosh promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes that [were) with him.

Esth. 3:6 And he thought scorn to lay hands on Mordekhay alone; for they had shewed him the people of Mordekhay: wherefore Haman sought to destroy all the Jews that [were] throughout the whole kingdom of Ahashuerosh, [even] the people of Mordekhay.

Esth. 3:7 In the first month, that [is], the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of king Ahashuerosh, they cast Pur, that [is], the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, [to] the twelfth [month], that [is], the month Adar.

Esth. 3:8 And Haman said unto king Ahashuerosh, There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the people in all the provinces of thy kingdom; and their laws [are] diverse from all people, neither keep they the king's laws: therefore it [is] not for the king's profit to suffer them.

Esth. 3:12 Then were the king's scribes called on the thirteenth day of the first month, and there was written according to all that Haman had commanded unto the king's lieutenants, and to the governors that [were] over every province, and to the rulers of every people of every province according to the rating thereof, and [to] every people after their language; in the name of king Ahashverosh was it written, and sealed with the king's ring.

Esth. 6:2 And it was found written, that Mordekhay had told of Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king's chamberlains, the keepers of the door, who sought to lay hand on the king Ahashuerosh.

Esth. 7:5 Then the king Ahashverosh answered and said unto Ester the queen, "Who is he, and where is he, that durst presume in his heart to do so?

Esth. 8:1 On that day did the king Ahashverosh give the house of Haman the Jews' enemy unto Ester the queen. And Mordekhay came before the king; for Ester had told what he [was] unto her.

Esth. 8:7 Then the king Ahashuerosh said unto Ester the queen and to Mordekhay the Jew, Behold, I have given Ester the house of Haman, and him they have hanged upon the gallows, because he laid his hand upon the Jews.

Esth. 8:10 And he wrote in the king Ahashverosh name, and sealed [it] with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, [and] elders on mules, camels, [and] young dromedaries:

Esth. 8:12 Upon one day in all the provinces of king Ahashuerosh, [namely], upon the thirteenth [day] of the twelfth month, which [is] the month Adar.

Esth. 9:2 The Jews gathered themselves together in their cities throughout all the provinces of the king Ahashverosh, to lay hand on such as sought their hurt: and no man could withstand them; for the fear of them fell upon all people.

Esth. 9:20 And Mordekhay wrote these things, and sent letters unto all the Jews that [were] in all the provinces of the king Ahashuerosh, [both] nigh and far,

Esth. 9:30 And he sent the letters unto all the Jews, to the hundred twenty and seven provinces of the kingdom of Ahashuerosh, [With] words of peace and truth,

Esth. 10:1 And the king Ahashuerosh laid a tribute upon the land, and [upon] the isles of the sea.

Esth. 10:3 For Mordekhay the Jew [was] next unto king Ahashverosh and great among the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren, seeking the wealth of his people, and speaking peace to all his seed.

Dan. 9:l I the first year of Darius the son of Ahashverosh, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;..

Note to the Student:

Footnotes 102-164 are being omitted from this online document for the sake of time.  
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